Why is electricity transmitted at high voltage and a low current?
Electricity is transmitted at high voltage and low current mainly for two reasons:
Reduced Losses: When electricity travels long distances through transmission lines, some energy is lost as heat due to resistance in the wires. Higher voltage reduces the current needed to transmit the same amount of power (P = VI), and lower current results in lower resistive losses (P = I^2R). This means that by using high voltage and low current, the amount of energy lost as heat during transmission is minimized.
Efficient Transmission: Higher voltages allow for more efficient power transmission over long distances. Lower current means less energy is lost as heat, and thinner wires can be used for transmission, reducing material costs. Additionally, high-voltage transmission reduces the need for numerous substations along the transmission lines.
Overall, high voltage and low current transmission methods are used to maximize efficiency, minimize energy loss, and maintain the effectiveness of power distribution across vast distances in electrical grids.