What is the meaning of Ferranti effect?
The Ferranti effect, also known as the Ferranti phenomenon, refers to a phenomenon that occurs in long transmission lines or power distribution systems where the voltage at the receiving end of the line is significantly higher than the voltage at the sending end, despite the absence of any active voltage regulation devices.
The effect is named after Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti, a British electrical engineer who first observed and studied this phenomenon.
The Ferranti effect arises due to the reactive nature of transmission lines and the capacitance inherent in the system.
When electric power is transmitted over long distances, the line itself acts as a distributed capacitor, which causes the line to exhibit capacitive reactance.
This reactance, in turn, causes the voltage at the receiving end of the line to be higher than the voltage at the sending end.
The primary reason for this voltage rise is the lagging power factor of the system. As power flows through the transmission line, it causes a voltage drop due to the line’s resistance and inductive reactance.
However, the capacitive reactance of the line partially compensates for this voltage drop, resulting in a higher voltage at the receiving end.
The Ferranti effect is more pronounced in high-voltage and lightly loaded transmission systems.
It can lead to voltage instability, increased line losses, and potential damage to equipment if not properly managed.
To mitigate the effect, compensation devices such as shunt reactors or series capacitors can be installed at appropriate locations along the transmission line to regulate the voltage and improve system performance.
Overall, the Ferranti effect is an important consideration in power system design and operation, particularly for long-distance transmission lines, and engineers must account for its impact to ensure the reliable and efficient delivery of electric power.