Engineering Metrology and Measurement
Chapter 1 deals with the basic principles of engineering metrology. It gives an overview of
the subject along with its importance. It also talks about general measurement, methods of
measurement, errors asso
Chapter 2 sets the standards of measurement. These standards acts as a reference point for the
Chapter 3 presents the limits, fits, and tolerances in design and manufacturing. An
understanding of these concepts helps in the interchangeability of manufactured components.
Chapter 4 discusses linear measurements that form one of the most important constituents of
metrology. The chapter throws light on surface plates and V-blocks, over which the measurand
is inspected. It discusses the scaled, vernier, and micrometer instruments in detail. The chapter
ends with a detailed explanation of slip gauges.
Chapter 5 elaborates on angular measurements. The fact that not all measurands can be
measured by linear methods stresses the significance of this topic. This chapter deals with
devices such as protractors, sine bars, angle gauges, spirit levels, and other optical instruments
used for angular measurements.
Chapter 6 aids in the comprehension of comparators. In several instances, a measurement may
be carried out on the basis of a comparison with the existing standards of measurements. This
chapter discusses the instruments that work on this common principle.
Chapter 7 explains optical measurements and interferometry. Optical measurement provides
a simple, accurate, and reliable means of carrying out inspection and measurements in the
industry. This chapter gives insights into some of the important instruments and techniques
that are widely used. Interferometers, which use laser as a source, are also discussed in detail.
Chapter 8 focuses on the metrological inspection of gears and screw threads. Gears are the
main elements in a transmission system. Misalignment and gear runout will result in vibrations,
chatter, noise, and loss of power. Therefore, one cannot understate the importance of precise
measurement and inspection techniques for gears. Similarly, the geometric aspects of screw
threads are quite complex and hence, thread gauging is an integral part of a unified thread
Chapter 9 analyses the metrology of surface finish. Two apparently flat contacting surfaces
are assumed to be in perfect contact throughout the area of contact. However, in reality, there
are peaks and valleys between surface contacts. Since mechanical engineering is primarily
concerned with machines and moving parts that are designed to precisely fit with each other,
surface metrology has become an important topic in engineering metrology.