What is Kaplan Turbine and How It Works?

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What is Kaplan Turbine?

Kaplan Turbine is a pivotal stream response turbine with customizable edges. This turbine was produced in the year 1913 by Viktor Kaplan, who was an Austrian Professor. In his structure, he consolidated naturally balanced propeller cutting edges and consequently balanced wicket doors to get effectiveness over a wide scope of water stream and water level.

It is likewise called as propeller turbine and advanced from the Francis Turbine. It is equipped for working at low head and high stream rates effectively which is inconceivable with Francis turbine.The working scope of head at which the Kaplan turbine works more efficienlty is 10 to 70 m.

What is Kaplan Turbine

Working Principle

Since it is a response turbine, so the response power of leaving water is utilized to turn the sprinter of the Kaplan turbine, As the water moves through the curved sharp edges a lift compel is created the other way of the leaving water and that lift drive makes the cutting edges pivot.

Main Parts


1. Scroll Casing

It is a winding sort of packaging that has diminishing cross segment zone. The water first goes into the parchment packaging and afterward it travels through it to the guide vanes lastly to the sprinter sharp edges. It secures the sprinter, sprinter sharp edges direct vanes and other inside parts of the turbine from an outer harm.

2. Guide Vanes and Guide Mechanism

Guide vanes are utilized to guide the water to the sprinter cutting edges easily by diminishing its twirl speed. On the off chance that direct vanes is missing than the turbine can not work productively and its effectiveness diminishes. The aides are customizable in Kaplan turbine. Its opening and shutting relies on the interest of intensity prerequisite. If there should be an occurrence of more power yield necessities, it opens more extensive to enable more water to hit the edges of the rotor and when low power yield requires it closes itself to stop the stream of water.

3. Runner and Runner Blades

Kaplan_Turbine runner baldes

Sprinter is the turning some portion of the turbine or we can say that it is the core of the Kaplan turbine. Its pole is associated with the pole of the generator. The sprinter of the this turbine has a substantial supervisor on which its sharp edges are appended and the edges of the sprinter is flexible to an ideal approach for most extreme power yield. The cutting edges of the Kaplan turbine has contort along its length.

Why contort is given to the sharp edges of the sprinter in Kaplan turbine?

The sprinter sharp edges has contort along its length so as to have constantly ideal approach for all cross area of cutting edges to accomplish more prominent proficiency.

4. Draft Tube

It is a cylinder which is utilized to builds the weight of the liquid or water that leaves the turbine. It has expanding cross segment zone. Draft tube is utilized just in response turbine. It expands the weight of the water that leaves the sprinter cutting edges. Since the water at exit of the turbine has low weight and if its weight isn’t expanded than the reverse of the tail race water takes which can harm the turbine. So to expand the weight of the leaving water we utilizes draft tube. It changes over the motor vitality of the water into weight vitality as it goes through draft tube and the weight of the water increments. The draft tube needs to builds the weight of the water upto such a degree, to the point that it should constantly more prominent than the weight of tail race water and keeps the reverse of water from the tail race to the turbine. On the off chance that it doesn’t occurs than cavitation may results and makes harm the turbine.


The water from the pen-stock goes into the parchment packaging. The water moves into the parchment packaging and the guide vanes guides the water from the packaging to the sharp edges of the sprinter. The vanes are movable and can change itself as indicated by the prerequisite of stream rate. As the water moves over the cutting edges it begins pivoting because of response power of the water. The cutting edges in the Kaplan turbine is additionally customizable. From the sprinter sharp edges, the water goes into the draft tube where its weight vitality and active vitality diminishes. In reality here the K.E. is gets changed over into weight vitality results in expanded weight of the water. At last the water released to the trail race. The revolution of the turbine is utilized to turn the pole of generator for power creation and for some other mechanical work.


  • It can work all the more proficiently at low water head and high stream rates as contrasted and different kinds of turbines.
  • It is littler in size.
  • It is anything but difficult to build and space necessity is less.
  • The Efficiency of Kaplan turbine is high as contrasts and other water driven turbine.


Cavitation is the significant issue in this turbine. Utilization of draft tube and legitimate material by and large treated steel for the sprinter cutting edges may decrease the cavitation issue to a more prominent degree.


This turbine is utilized in power age (for the most part power) where water is accessible at low head and at higher stream rates.

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