Master Cylinder: Types, Working Principle and Applications

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Master cylinder in a car stopping mechanism is a water powered gadget in which chamber and a couple of cylinders are organized in such a way, to the point that the mechanical power connected by the driver of a vehicle either by brake pedal (in autos) or by brake switch (in bicycles) is changed over into water driven weight which thusly exchanged to the brake caliper for braking.

In the hydraulic braking system, ace chamber is a gadget that gives required measure of weight or braking power to the last braking segments after duplication of the mechanical power connected by the driver through brake pedal or brake switch.

Why We Need a Master Cylinder

As we as a whole know now that an ace chamber in water driven stopping mechanism is a transitional part that filled in as a vitality converter and in addition constrain multiplier i.e. mechanical vitality into water driven weight so we require ace chamber in pressure driven slowing mechanism in light of the fact that-

  • When we talk about the present car vehicles because of their fast, the brake drive required (to stop or de-quicken vehicle productively) is additionally high, which can’t be proficiently satisfied by mechanical braking, so water driven braking with ace chamber is the new need of the present vehicle as it creates higher brake constrain.
  • As we as a whole realize that the brake constrain required in front wheels is higher than that of genuine wheels because of the moving of mass from back to front amid braking, this dissemination of brake drive among back and front wheels is a component of ace barrel.
  • In pressure driven braking, the power connected by driver on brake pedal (in vehicle) or brake switch (in bicycles) amid braking (50N-70N) isn’t sufficient to cause real braking, so a middle of the road part i.e. ace chamber is required that can duplicate this power and further exchange this high power to the brake caliper which thusly creates high brake compel lastly real braking occurs.
  • In water driven braking the brake pedal or switch exertion required for braking is radically diminished because of the utilization of ace barrel as it goes about as a converter that can change over the mechanical power connected by driver on brake pedal or switch into the high water powered weight.
  • The utilization of ace chamber diminishes the odds of brake disappointment as it gives the constructional adaptability in which the braking in front and back tire can be made free of one another.

Sorts of Master Cylinder

Based on its development and application brake ace barrels are of 2 types that are-

Single Circuit Master Cylinder

  • It is the basic kind of ace chamber simply like a therapeutic syringe, in this sort of ace barrel single cylinder inside a barrel is utilized to cause braking.
  • Single circuit m c (ace barrel) circulates break even with power in every one of the wheels because of the utilization of single chamber single cylinder or circuit.
  • This sort of ace chamber is ordinarily utilized in numerous 2 wheelers and some light weight 4 wheelers

Couple Master Cylinder or Dual Circuit Master Cylinder

  • It is the changed sort of m c in which double chamber double cylinder or single barrel double cylinder alongside double circuit is utilized for autonomous braking among front and back wheels.
  • This kind of ace barrel is utilized in all autos as it is more proficient than single circuit m c.
  • It gives the independency among front and back wheels braking or corner to corner kind of braking which is the critical wellbeing highlight for a vehicle.


Single Circuit Master Cylinder

It comprise of 5 sections :-


It is the capacity tank utilized for putting away the brake liquid in pressure driven kind of stopping mechanism, as a rule it is comprised of plastic.


It is the hermetically sealed lodging inside which the cylinder moves with the snapshot of brake pedal which thusly causes transformation and increase of power. Barrel is typically comprised of solid metal or aluminum.

  • It is associated with the supply through channel valve and furthermore with brake lines through outlet valve.
  • In single circuit m c there is just 1 pressure chamber.


It is the responding some portion of the ace barrel that responds inside the chamber because of the development of brake pedal, the cylinder causes pressure of brake liquid inside the barrel which thus creates high water powered weight.

  • In single circuit just 1 cylinder is utilized.

Returning Spring

It is the basic curl sort of spring utilized inside the barrel which enables the cylinder and brake to pedal to hold its unique position after brake pedal is discharged.


In single circuit m c it is the outlet valve through which the brake line is joined, The compacted brake liquid is additionally exchanged to the caliper through this valve.

Pair Master Cylinder


Pair ace barrel rather than single supply 2 or double chamber repository is utilized as a capacity tank for brake liquid.


Same chamber as in single circuit type is utilized with the little alteration i.e. it is the lodging of 2 cylinders and furthermore there are 2 outlet and 2 delta valves.

  • couple m c there are 2 pressure chamber inside the barrel.


Rather than one cylinder, 2 cylinders that are essential cylinder and optional cylinder are utilized couple m c, the incitation of auxiliary cylinder happens after consummation of the essential cylinder development.

  • essential cylinder is associated with the brake pedal and auxiliary cylinder is put simply behind the returning spring of essential cylinder.

Returning Spring

Pair m c 2 returning springs are utilized one with the essential cylinder and second with the optional cylinder.


Couple ace chamber as it is the double circuit m c , 2 gulf and 2 outlet valves are utilized .

Working Principle

Single Circuit Master Cylinder

  • In single circuit ace barrel when brake pedal isn’t squeezed i.e. non activation position the cylinder stays at its unique position which thusly shuts the bay valve of the repository because of which there is no approaching of brake liquid happens between store to pressure chamber.
  • When brake pedal is squeezed i.e. activated position, the cylinder which is associated with the brake pedal through interfacing pole moves which thusly opens the gulf valve because of which approaching of brake liquid from store to pressure chamber happens.
  • This brake liquid inside the pressure chamber is packed because of the development of cylinder inside the barrel simply like the medicinal syringe.
  • After pressure up to a specific weight the outlet valve opens and this exceptionally compacted brake liquid is additionally exchanged to the brake lines for further brake activation.

Couple Master Cylinder

The working of couple ace barrel is 70% same as the single circuit m c however in this sort 2 autonomous circuits of braking is utilized let perceive how its function

  • When brake pedal isn’t activated, the cylinder stays at their unique place, shutting the delta valve of both the pressure chambers, which thus cuts the approaching of brake liquid between both the supply or both the repository chambers.
  • When the brake pedal is incited, at first the essential cylinder moves because of which opening of essential bay valve happens.
  • Initially because of the development of essential cylinder pressure of the brake liquid inside essential chamber happens.
  • After fulfillment of the pressure in essential chamber essential outlet valve opens up and this packed brake liquid is additionally sent to brake calipers through brake lines and activation of the essential circuit brakes occur.
  • After the fruition of the essential cylinder development i.e. at its extraordinary end, the auxiliary cylinder begins moving on account of the power connected by the essential cylinder’s spring which thus opens the optional valve and approaching of brake liquid from auxiliary supply to optional pressure chamber happens.
  • This brake liquid is then packed and after entire pressure auxiliary outlet opens up and this profoundly compacted liquid is sent to the brake calipers through brake lines and activation of the optional circuit brakes happen.


Single Circuit Master Cylinder

  • It is mostly utilized in 2 wheelers like Bajaj pulsar, TVS apache and so on.
  • Many light weight vehicles like e-rikshaws are likewise utilizing this sort of ace barrel.

Pair Master Cylinder

  • It is generally utilized in every one of the autos outfitted with water driven stopping mechanism.
  • Using pair ace c in vehicle furnished with pressure driven slowing mechanism is made mandatory by administrations of numerous nations on account of its wellbeing to brake disappointment.

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One thought on “Master Cylinder: Types, Working Principle and Applications

  • Sani Usman Arome

    I really want to practice my discipline. I enjoy this page it educates me so much.


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